In Part I, we had a look at the genome of Dee, a very interesting Creatures 1 Norn who is descended from the Yin Yang Norns. Special thanks go to Malkin again for suggesting Dee as a case study! She can be downloaded from The Creatures Repository for anyone wishing to take a look at her in more depth, and even add her to C1!
We last left off with several more categories of mutations and modifications to cover. These are the chemical reactions, instincts, appearance genes, and pigments. The last two will be covered briefly, although there are some interesting gender-specific genes. I will only be covering the chemical reactions in this entry, although there are a ton of them! Brace yourself for another adventure into the land of genetics!
Chemical reactions define rules for individual chemicals and chemical combinations. These genes can also state the rules for how chemicals are used up, and each reaction has a defined half-life to determine how often it occurs.
57 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Pain++ => 1*Pain + 4*Punishment; half-life = 8
58 Emb B MutDupCut 1*NFP++ => 1*NFP + 2*Punishment; half-life = 8
59 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Hunger++ => 1*Hunger + 6*Punishment; half-life = 8
60 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Coldness++ => 1*Coldness + 2*Punishment; half-life = 8
61 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Hotness++ => 1*Hotness + 2*Punishment; half-life = 8
62 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Tiredness++ => 1*Tiredness + 3*Punishment; half-life = 8
64 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Sleepiness++ => 1*Sleepiness + 2*Punishment; half-life = 8
65 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Loneliness++ => 1*Loneliness + 2*Punishment; half-life = 8
66 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Crowdedness++ => 1*Crowdedness + 2*Punishment; half-life = 8
67 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Fear++ => 1*Fear + 2*Punishment; half-life = 8
68 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Boredom++ => 1*Boredom + 2*Punishment; half-life = 8
69 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Anger++ => 1*Anger + 2*Punishment; half-life = 8
There are a lot of modifications here, but they are all related. In the standard Norn genome, one unit of a chemical increase (i.e. NFP increase or hunger increase) produces one unit of that chemical (i.e. NFP or hunger) and one unit of punishment. Effectively, a Norn is punished when a need is increased, which aids in teaching them that it is important to try not to increase these needs whenever possible. In the case of Dee, the amount of punishment is much higher for these reactions: Up to six times, in fact! This should help deter her from bad behaviors a bit easier. Is it any surprise what the next set of chemical reactions will be?
72 Emb B MutDupCut 1*NFP- + 2*NFP => 2*Reward; half-life = 8
73 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Hunger- + 1*Hunger => 7*Reward; half-life = 8
74 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Coldness- + 1*Coldness => 2*Reward; half-life = 8
75 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Hotness- + 1*Hotness => 2*Reward; half-life = 8
76 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Tiredness- + 1*Tiredness => 4*Reward; half-life = 8
78 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Sleepiness- + 1*Sleepiness => 3*Reward; half-life = 8
79 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Loneliness- + 1*Loneliness => 2*Reward; half-life = 8
80 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Crowdedness- + 1*Crowdedness => 2*Reward; half-life = 8
82 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Fear- + 1*Fear => 2*Reward; half-life = 8
84 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Boredom- + 1*Boredom => 2*Reward; half-life = 8
85 Emb B MutDupCut 1*Anger- + 1*Anger => 2*Reward; half-life = 8
111 Emb B MutDup 1*Reward => 2*Reinforcement + 2*RewardEcho; half-life = 16
All of these chemical reactions involve what happens with chemical decreases, such as hunger decrease. The standard Norn genome defines a reward level of one unit for all of these reactions, save gene 111. Effectively, Dee receives a much greater level of reward when she finds a way to reduce a drive. Coupled with the punishment modifications listed above, she should certainly have the capability of learning quite well! These are also natural reactions, so she should have a better time learning on her own. The final mutation is in gene 111, which is related to this group: This controls the levels of the short-term learning chemical, reinforcement, as well as the long-term learning chemical, reward echo. Good decisions give Dee a positive boost immediately and down the road. Just another reason why she should be a very smart Norn!
142 Emb B MutDup 1*Starch => 5*Glucose + 8*Hunger-; half-life = 64
The standard C1 Norn genome states that one unit of starch yields two units of glucose. However, starch itself is not tied in with hunger decrease, which seems a little counter intuitive. Dee has the added benefits of increased glucose production from starch, as well as a significant decrease in hunger. This hunger decrease would probably not be beneficial if Dee could not produce a lot of glucose from starch: It would be as though a small bit of starch would make her feel full, yet her body would not really be satisfied. With the increased glucose reaction, this is a very useful gene for teaching Dee how to eat! Coupled with the fact that hunger decrease is tied in with reward, she should have no problem understanding that food is good!
158 Ado F MutDupMut 1*Gonadotrophin + 1*Estrogen => 3*Gonadotrophin; half-life = 40
312 Emb B 1*Gonadotrophin + 4*Glucose => 1*Gonadotrophin; half-life = 96
These two genes are directly related to the pregnancy hormone, gonadotrophin, which is present in female Norns. Gene 158 differs from the standard in that it uses less estrogen and produces more gonadotrophin. In simple terms, this means that Dee’s pregnancy will progress faster and allow her to have the chance to have more offspring during her lifetime. Gene 312 counteracts this “super breeder” status a little bit: It states that gonadotrophin uses up four times the standard amount of glucose. In other words, Dee will have to consume more food in order to sustain herself and her unborn child during each pregnancy. So although her pregnancies go by more quickly, each one takes more out of her than a standard C1 Norn pregnancy.
One interesting side note: Gene 312 is specifically related to gonadotrophin, which only occurs in females during pregnancy. Even in the standard Norn genome, it applies to both genders, rather than just females. With an odd mutation, males could actually produce gonadotrophin in their systems and feel some of the effects of pregnancy! Kind of interesting, at least to a science nerd like myself. Ha ha!
70 Emb B MutDupCut 1*SexDrive++ => 1*SexDrive + 5*Reward;half-life = 8
86 Emb B MutDupCut 1*SexDrive- + 1*SexDrive => 6*Reward; half-life = 8
In the standard Norn genome, sex drive increase actually resulted in one unit of sex drive and, oddly enough, one unit of punishment. A Norn was punished for an increase in sex drive, which certainly sounds counterproductive to evolution! Gene 70 is updated in Dee to produce a large amount of reward, so that she is encouraged to raise her sex drive. This should definitely help in making her an excellent breeder. Gene 86 is similar, but this affects the level of reward produced when lowering sex drive. Dee receives six times the level of reward than a standard Norn, so kiss popping should be something she really enjoys! Note that although she is rewarded for both reactions (an increase and a decrease), she experiences more reward from decreasing her sex drive. Effectively, although she will seek to raise this drive, she should feel more compelled to lower it, when given the opportunity.
280 Ado M MutDupCut 1*Alcohol => 3*SexDrive + 1*Sleepiness; half-life = 64
281 Ado B MutDupCut 1*Alcohol => 3*SexDrive + 2*WakeUpPill; half-life = 64
The first gene listed here, gene 280, controls the effects of alcohol in male Norns who are adolescents and older. This will not have any bearing on Dee, but it basically differs from the standard genome in that it produces sex drive, rather than anger. Normal male Norns become angry after drinking alcohol, but this change means that a male with this genome would become more interested in kiss popping. Gene 281 normally only affects females, but it has been altered to affect both males and females. The major difference is that the Wake Up Pill chemical replaces sleepiness. Remember that the Yin Yang Norns have different reactions to the injections. Wake Up Pill is actually called Happy Juice, which reduces most drives and adds a bit of starch to a creature. For Dee, alcohol is actually quite pleasant!
313 Emb B 1*Energy ShotE => 1*Energy Shot + 5*Glycogen; half-life = 32
New 364 Emb B 1*Energy Shot + 1*CoughMedicine => 1* Energy Shot + 6*CoughMedicine; half-life = 73
New 365 Emb B 1*Energy Shot + 1*Painkiller => 1*Energy Shot = 6*PainKiller; half-life = 73
Here is the definition of one of the altered injections, called the energy shot. In the Yin Yang Norns, this chemical is known as ambrosia. It immediately raises the level of glycogen in Dee when injected, according to gene 313. This is a way to artificially keep her alive, but since it comes from the science kit, one can choose to never use this. The two new genes involve two other injectable chemicals: Cough medicine corresponds with sex booster, and pain killer is known as the pill. Gene 364 states that if Dee is injected with both the energy shot (ambrosia) and cough medicine (sex booster), she will become a super breeder. Conversely, if she is injected with the energy shot (ambrosia) and painkiller (the pill), she will effectively be sterilized. I rarely, if ever, use the injections in Creatures 1, but this is interesting to see how their effects can be altered!
314 Emb B 1*2XAdrenaline + 1*Energy Shot => 2*NONE; half-life = 32
Note that the reason why this injection is called 2XAdrenaline is because there are two instances of adrenaline in C1: One is more of a natural chemical that is caused by stress and can have negative effects, while there is an injection also called adrenaline. Adrenaline is known as mortalizer, and it simply removes the energy shot (ambrosia) from Dee’s system. Note from above that gene 313 does not remove the chemical during the reaction, so she could stay alive indefinitely with just one shot. A shot of adrenaline (mortalizer) simply removes this from her system and returns her to a more normal state.
315 Emb F 1*PainKiller + 1*Estrogen => 1*PainKiller + 1*NONE; half-life = 32
New 357 Emb M 1*PainKiller + 1*Testosterone => 1*PainKiller; half-life = 32
New 358 Emb B 1*PainKiller + 1*SexDrive => 2*SexDrive-; half-life = 32
New 359 Emb F 1*PainKiller + 1*Progesterone => 6*Progesterone; half-life = 32
Again, painkiller is actually the pill for the Yin Yang Norns. It can clearly be seen how this chemical will reduce sex drive for both genders, since it converts one unit of painkiller (the pill) and one unit of sex drive into two units of sex drive decrease. Gene 357 states that it will remove testosterone in males, while genes 315 and 359 help in keeping females infertile. The first gene removes estrogen from her system, stopping her cycles, while the second gene converts a small amount of progesterone into large amounts. Quite an accurate description!
316 Emb F 1*CoughMedicine + 1*NONE => 1*CoughMedicine + 2*Estrogen; half-life = 32
New360 Emb F 1*CoughMedicine + 1*Progesterone => 1*CoughMedicine; half-life = 32
New361 Emb M 1*CoughMedicine => 1*CoughMedicine + 3*Testosterone; half-life = 32
New362 Emb B 1*CoughMedicine => 1*SexDrive + 2*SexDrive++; half-life = 32
New363 Emb B 1*CoughMedicine + 1*PainKiller => 1*NONE; half-life = 32
Here we can see another new injection: Cough medicine is known as sex booster, and the name is quite fitting! Note how gene 316 raises the level of estrogen in females, whereas gene 361 raises the level of testosterone in males. Some who are familiar with the cycles in female Norns might be curious as to why an increased level of estrogen would make her any more fertile. Females are fertile when their estrogen levels are falling, but not rising. The reason for this is because an unfertilized egg is released when a female’s estrogen reaches its peak: Effectively, Dee could release many more unfertilized eggs since her estrogen would constantly peak. Gene 362 simply converts cough medicine (sex booster) into sex drive and sex drive increase. Lastly, gene 363 is a chemical reaction that will neutralize the two injections when they are both present in Dee’s system. So if she was injected with cough medicine (the pill) but I wanted to return her to a normal level, an injection of painkiller (sex booster) would mitigate most or all of the effects.
318 Emb B 1*WakeUpPill + 5*Pain => 2*NONE; half-life = 32
New 349 Emb B 1*WakeUpPill + 5*NFP => 1*NONE; half-life = 32
New 350 Emb B 1*WakeUpPill + 5*Hunger => 8*Starch; half-life = 32
New 351 Emb B 1*WakeUpPill + 5*Coldness => 1*NONE; half-life = 32
New 352 Emb B 1*WakeUpPill + 5*Tiredness => 1*NONE; half-life = 32
New 353 Emb B 1*WakeUpPill + 5*Sleepiness => 1*NONE; half-life = 32
New 354 Emb B 1*WakeUpPill + 5*Loneliness => 1*NONE; half-life = 32
New 355 Emb B 1*WakeUpPill + 5*Fear => 1*NONE; half-life = 32
New 356 Emb B 1*WakeUpPill + 5*Boredom => 1*NONE; half-life = 32
This set of genes represent the final altered chemical injection. This is normally known as the wake up pill, but with this altered genome, it becomes happy juice. It reacts with pain to produce nothing, which essentially decreases pain in Dee’s bloodstream. Additionally, wake up pill (happy juice) reacts with almost every drive to reduce it. The exception is hunger, which is reduced, but an infusion of starch is also added to the target Norn. Lucky Dee! I find that this could make the game too simple, although players have the option of ignoring the injections entirely and never introducing them into Creatures 1.
New 319 Emb B 1*AntiOxidant => 1*Ageing; half-life = 56
This gene is actually included in the genomes that come with Creatures 1: They were removed with the Updated C1 Genetics. This gene keeps a Norn alive indefinitely by allowing antioxidant to be converted into the aging chemical. Dee could therefore be immortal if she found a source of antioxidant: To the best of my knowledge, however, this is not a naturally occurring chemical in C1. Some COBs have been known to include it, though, so this puts Dee at a slight disadvantage from a realistic standpoint.
New 324 Emb B 1*Dancing + 1*NFP => 3*Dancing; half-life = 128
New 325 Emb B 1*Dancing + 2*Boredom => 1*Boredom; half-life = 112
Dancing Norns are always a funny sight, but they often do not dance very often. Dee has the benefit of having her need for pleasure (NFP) and boredom reduced by dancing. This should make her more apt to dance about, although toys and other distractions could take precedent. At least she can attempt to be a dancer!
New 326 Emb B 4*Antigen0 + 1*Antibody0 => 3*Antigen0 + 2*Antibody0; half-life = 48
New 327 Emb B 4*Antigen1 + 1*Antibody1 => 3*Antigen1 + 2*Antibody1; half-life = 48
New 328 Emb B 4*Antigen2 + 1*Antibody2 => 3*Antigen2 + 2*Antibody2; half-life = 48
New 329 Emb B 4*Antigen3 + 1*Antibody3 => 3*Antigen3 + 2*Antibody3; half-life = 48
New 330 Emb B 4*Antigen4 + 1*Antibody4 => 3*Antigen4 + 2*Antibody4; half-life = 48
New 331 Emb B 4*Antigen5 + 1*Antibody5 => 3*Antigen5 + 2*Antibody5; half-life = 48
New 332 Emb B 4*Antigen6 + 1*Antibody6 => 3*Antigen6 + 2*Antibody6; half-life = 48
New 333 Emb B 4*Antigen7 + 1*Antibody7 => 3*Antigen7 + 2*Antibody7; half-life = 48
These are some of my favorite new genes that Dee possesses! One of the few downsides to creature genetics is the fact that there is no realistic immune system. Antibodies simply build up in response to antigens, which effectively means that antigens produce antibodies. Aside from the initial concentrations of antibodies at birth, Norns can only produce antibodies when they are ill. There are also a few other reasons why their immune systems simply do not exist realistically, but it’s time to move on! Dee actually has all of the standard antibody and antigen reactions. These new ones, however, state that each antibody reacts with its corresponding antigen to both decrease the antigen and increase the antibody. This models a more realistic immune system, where the body really fights off the infection, rather than having the infection solely produce its matching cure. This is a vastly improved design! The nice thing about these genes is that they can not be mutated, cut, nor duplicated.
New 334 1*Antibody0 + 1*Glycotoxin => 1*Antibody0 + 2*Glucose; half-life = 64
New 335 1*Antibody1 + 1*Glycotoxin => 1*Antibody1 + 2*Glucose; half-life = 64
New 336 1*Antibody2 + 1*Glycotoxin => 1*Antibody2 + 2*Glucose; half-life = 6
New 337 1*Antibody3 + 1*Glycotoxin => 1*Antibody3 + 2*Glucose; half-life = 64
New 338 1*Antibody4 + 1*Geddonase => 1*Antibody4 + 2*Glucose; half-life = 64
New 339 1*Antibody5 + 1*Geddonase => 1*Antibody5 + 2*Glucose; half-life = 64
New 340 1*Antibody6 + 1*FeverToxin => 1*Antibody6 + 2*Glucose; half-life = 64
New 334 1*Antibody7 + 1*SleepToxin => 1*Antibody7 + 2*Glucose; half-life = 64
This set of new genes is another improvement on Dee’s immune system. Whereas each antibody usually only fights off its corresponding antigen, these new genes allow antibodies to fight off and remove certain toxins from the system. Antibodies 0, 1, 2, and 3 all can attack glycotoxin and produce more antibodies and glucose in the process. Antibodies 4 and 5 help fight off geddonase, while antibody 6 has the power to remove fever toxin from the bloodstream. Finally, antibody 7 counteracts sleep toxin. This means that antibodies serve more important purposes than just ridding the system of antigens: They also fight off these dangerous toxins. Therefore, Dee has a highly effective immune system capable of curing her much more quickly than a standard Norn’s immune system! Note again that these genes can not be mutated, cut, nor duplicated.
New 342 Emb B 2*Tiredness + 1*Sleepiness => 2*Sleepiness + 2*Tiredness-; half-life = 210
New 343 Emb B 4*Coldness + 4*Hotness => 2*Hotness- + 2*Coldness-; half-life = 16
New 344 Emb B 4*Loneliness+ 4*Crowdedness => 2*Crowdedness- + 2*Loneliness-; half-life = 0
New 345 Emb B 4*SexDrive + 4*Boredom => 2*SexDrive- + 2*Boredom-; half-life = 0
New 346 Emb B 4*Fear + 4*Anger => 2*Fear- + 2*Anger-; half-life = 0
New 347 Emb B 3*Fear + 2*SexDrive => 1*SexDrive; half-life = 182
Again, these genes come from the Yin Yang Norns and are new when compared with the standard Norn genome. Gene 342 converts tiredness into sleepiness, which should help Dee sleep much better. She should rarely, if ever, get to the point of exhaustion without feeling very sleepy. This is a common problem with Norns: Often they feel extremely tired, but not sleepy enough to rest. Genes 343, 344, 345, and 346 are all drive neutralizing reactions. For example, coldness and hotness react with one another to reduce both drives. This makes sense: A Norn should not be able to feel extremely cold and hot at the same time. Dee can still feel coldness and hotness, as well as the other drives: This just helps to ensure that she does not experience the opposite ones at the same time. Lastly, gene 347 is quite similar to these drive neutralizers. It states that when Dee is fearful and has a high sex drive, her sex drive will be reduced. Makes sense: Why would a Norn want to kiss pop in a scary situation? These are excellent additions!
New 349 Old B 4*Glycogen + 4*Glucose => 5*Glycotoxin + 5*Sleepiness++; half-life = 4
At first glance, this gene might seem completely out of place. Why in the world would glycogen and glucose react to create sleepiness increase and, of all things, glycotoxin?! Note the life stage that this gene kicks in: Old. In reading more about the Yin Yang Norns, one can see that this gene is used to peacefully kill very old Norns. Dee herself can withstand a certain amount of glycotoxin in her system with her improved immune system, but this can only go on for so long. This should mean that she will not pass away at the oldest age she could attain. However, her death would be fairly painless, since she should, in theory, be asleep.
Had enough? I know I have! This concludes the discussion of all of Dee’s new and altered chemical reactions. There is a lot of information to take in, but I hope that this will be useful to anyone delving into the genetics behind creatures. Note that most Norns do not have an enormous list of mutations or modifications that Dee does: Most of these were purposefully included in her genome to attain the desired results. She is certainly a fascinating Norn to study! The final part of her case study will conclude with a few observations of how these genes affect her in Albia. I promise that it will not be as text heavy!